Refleksi tentang Masa Depan (Anak) Kita

“Mah, aku nanti jadi apa ya?”

Pertanyaan naif yang ngeri-ngeri sedap. Jawabannya gampang jika kita hanya diharuskan menjawab sesuai apa yang kita alami dulu dan saat ini.

(tulisan ini translasi dari tulisan sebelumnya di…)

Ya benar kan, apakah kita bisa memperkirakan masa depan akan seperti apa untuk anak-anak kita?

Apakah profesi yang mereka cita-citakan nanti masih ada?

Yuah Noval Harari dalam bukunya Homo Deus, bahwa perkembangan kecerdasan buatan (AI) akan mengambil sebagian besar pekerjaan kita (Harari, 2015). Bacaan versi lebih manusiawi pernah Ayah @fajrinrasyid bahas di sini.

Namun pada tulisan ini saya coba membahas dari sudut pandang lain.

AI mungkin bisa menggantikan otomasi pekerjaan. Akan tetapi saya belum bisa menerima klaim bahwa AI bisa menggantikan cara kerja emosi, bakat, dan potensi manusia dalam berkarya untuk kontribusi ke lingkungannya.

Sebagaimana disampaikan pada survey tehadap 10,029 bagian dari populasi umum di Cina, Jerman, India, Inggris, dan Amerika, menyatakan bahwa teknologi tidak akan pernah menggantikan pikiran manusia (PwC, 2017).

Kemarin kita menghargai manusia untuk menyelesaikan suatu hal yang disebut pekerjaan. Kemudian kita bertemu dengan perkembangan AI untuk membantu manusia. Masalah kemudian muncul ketika ada ide bahwa AI kelak (dan mungkin sudah) bisa mengalahkan manusia dari sisi efektivitas dan efisiensi.

Jika begitu, bagaimana kita menyiapkan sistem pendidikan untuk membangun kapasitas manusia yang kompetitif dalam menghadapi masa depan yang tak terprediksi?

Atau malah terprediksi, yaitu ada masa ketika manusia berebut pekerjaan dengan robot?

Manusia memiliki bakat unik. Hal inilah yang menjadi bekal untuk sukses karir di masa depan. Menurut Tom Rath (2007), kunci membangun SDM adalah mengembangkan diri sesuai apa yang sudah miliki.

Banyak metode untuk memahami manusia, dengan membagi mereka ke dalam karakteristik tertentu.

There are many methods used to understand humans by dividing them into a particular characteristic, namely talent, genetic potential, personality, IQ rank, and many more. During the time, many researchers try to formulate those, so we know how to treat the human better.

Though, it is not necessarily enough. There’s the future when jobs disappear, and the new kinds emerge every once in a while (Mckinsey Global Institute, 2017). Now, it’s about what and how we educate humans to stay economically indispensable in the future.

It is not that there will be no job, only popular job shifting. According to United Nation SDG, there are 17 world problems to figure. There are always emerging jobs to do so. In the future, the employment that we have in the present may be gone, but there will be new ones covering whether that blue-collar or white-collar level of occupations. Take, for example, yesterday the courier business and the related jobs are limited. Today, in the e-commerce era, it becomes new employment opportunity which still has high demand, especially in developing country.

Secondly, for certain skill, there are many new jobs available such as data scientist, knowledge worker, social media copy-writer, also SEO consultant and trainer. This also happens in art, a domain which was underestimated due to a perception that its future job is unclear. In the content era nowadays, the people who become a trendsetter are those who have art talent, limitless creativity, and able to express it into multimedia requiring sense of design, web designer, and UI/UX capability. All of these are not present in the past, but along with technology advancement, it exists.

In the past, we have cash money only as the payment tools. Then, we had cards. Today, we have fintech dan blockchain replacing those. We could not find prepaid credit for mobile phone easily on the roadside counter, or we so-called ‘warung‘ years ago. Now, it is effortless. So, it is not impossible if we find bitcoin counter in small counter in rural area years ahead.

Well, it is just an illustration for another emerging jobs opportunity. Fortunately, it’s not always related to IT developer skills.

Another argument seconds this mindset is stated by David Lee in TEDx talk. He said in the era of fewer jobs, we need to change our mindset to take employment which is more appropriate to replace the lost job due to the robot and AI automation. The mentality in doing business need to shift from “just doing what” into “what can you contribute” and “what can you create to finish your job.”

Rhenald Kasali seconds this idea in his speech, by emphasizing in contribute, not only for ourselves or family but also to the people. Industrial and economic drivers were based on capitalism. Today, it shifts towards sharing economy and social ventures, of which the result affected by solving people’s problems.

Besides affected by the economy, the employment availability shifting is reasonable following the change of way society do something. For example, the previous baby-boomer generation is satisfied with entertainment on TV. Insurance for this generation is fulfilled by saving some money. Meanwhile, the millennial generations have shifted their priority to lifestyle and experience. Today, youngsters find the excitement through posting what and where they eat, a phenomenon with hashtag #foodporn. It is not an event in people’s mind years ago, a tertiary need. Eventually, it becomes secondary, and event primary needs nowadays.

Therefore, there is always a possibility that new business models are popping up, bringing the opportunity to hire many workers with different human capabilities compared to the previous era. Mckinsey in its report (2017) wrote that there is a shifting occupation trend. We can assume that this could also keep on going if technology continues to develop.

Well, after all, in the end, there’s a question left as the adult. How do we educate and nurture our youngsters to survive this future? I’ll continue in the next post.

Jakarta, 3 November 2018
~Ami
A Lecturer, a student, a lifelong learner & tech-savvy Mother

*) Mungkin latar belakang pendidikan dan otak beda jauh, hehe. Akan tetapi sebagai orang yang berkesempatan melihat langsung bahwa manusia itu punya struktur pikiran dan potensi yang tidak sederhana. Bahasa gampangnya pernah ngelahirin, dan mendampingi dua anak manusia dari janin sampai golden age mereka. Yang semua juga tahu tidak sesederhana teorinya.

References:

  • Harari, Y. N. (2015). Homo deus : a brief history of tomorrow.
  • Mckinsey Global Institute. (2017). MGI-A-future-that-works_Full-report.pdf.
  • PwC. (2017). Workforce of the future – The competing forces shaping 2030. Human Capital, August, 14–18.
  • Rath, T. (2007). Strengths finder 2.0. Gallup Press.